One of the unusual manifestations of artistic activity, through which communication with the recipient takes place, is graphic design. Its purpose is to evoke positive emotions, engage, convey information and teach the application of the product.
Graphic design is a basic tool of market communication, used primarily in advertising, press, on product packaging, information, press and exhibition materials. Nowadays, all information technologies are used, which definitely accelerate the process of graphic design and image processing.
Graphic design requires in composition and aesthetics, proper selection of graphic elements, thanks to which it is possible to achieve a perfect final effect, the activity of persuasive approach to the recipient. Full graphic composition called layout includes such elements as text, photography, graphics and other graphic symbols, iconographic signs, page layout, divisions or lines.
Plastic composition is a universal way of communicating with the elements of the image plane. However, its principles require an even balance of aesthetics and readability of the message. Despite the artistic background, the field of graphic design also has its strictly defined rules.
The most important elements of artistic composition include:
- the plane,
- hue and color
The plane is the most important element of graphic design. In art it is a flat design object and in contrast to three-dimensional objects it has two dimensions. Compositions are based on the play of light and shadow, which ensures visibility of the entire arrangement of elements on the plane.
The elements of the composition are often defined by means of colors. They liven up and enrich the artistic message of objects. Each color is perceived by the recipient in a different way.
The rules that increase the impact of plastic composition on the aesthetic and functional level include:
Symmetry consists in transforming an element or set of activity elements in such a way as to obtain a perfect representation of this element. Symmetry is a basic tool for designing advertising materials, business cards, leaflets, banners. It makes the composition harmonious, balanced in size and distance. Lack of symmetry results in negative reception and disruption of the communication process.
The proportions between the elements of the composition (size of the logotype, subtitles, illustrations) affect the proper understanding and interpretation of the message. The size of objects such as photographs and graphics should be taken into account when scaling.
The composition rhythm depends mainly on the distance between the elements of the composition as well as their position in relation to each other. This distance and arrangement helps in understanding and interpreting the message, it also allows to transform a single motif into more complex forms.
A dominant is most visible, repeating and influencing element. It is referred to as the dominant element in the context of a color scheme or individual graphic elements of an image.
Contact determines the visual impression of combining different graphic forms. Arranged relations between the elements create a harmonious arrangement and give the impression of aesthetics. Disorder means the dynamics of the composition.
Commonly, in press advertisements, illustrations occupy a little more than half of the total area, this also applies to the sum of the area of graphic elements and photographs. The headlines are usually placed under the graphic elements, above the actual text and occupy no more than a percent of the total area. The perception of an advertisement is mainly influenced by size, it is considered that the bigger it is, the more it hits the recipient.